Faculty Meeting Friday, November 24, 2006

Date: 
Friday, November 24, 2006 (All day)
Location: 
ATAC 5035
Agenda: 
Subject:        COUNCIL MEETING                                
 
There will be a meeting of the Council of the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
ON FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 2006 AT 1:30 P.M.  IN ROOM 5035 (ATAC BUILDING).
 
                                                AGENDA  
1.       Approval of Agenda.
 
2.       Approval of the October 20th Minutes.  
 
3.       Business Arising from the Minutes.
 
4.       Dean's Report.
 
5.       November Graduands.
 
6.       Departmental Reports.
i)
English (calendar changes)-doc 1
ii)
History (calendar changes)-doc 2
iii) 
Philosophy (calendar changes) - doc 3
iv)
Political Science (calendar changes)-doc 4 
v)
Psychology (calendar changes)-doc 5
 
7.       Other Business.
 
8.       Adjournment.
 
__________________________________
VICTOR SMITH
Chair, Social Sciences and Humanities Faculty Council.
:jv
Minutes: 
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES COUNCIL
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 20, 2006
 
A meeting of the Faculty Council was held on Friday, October 20, 2006 at 1:30 p.m. in the ATAC Board Room 5035.
 
V. Smith called the meeting to order.
 
1.  
LUSU Student Representatives 
 
V. Smith introduced LUSU student representatives F. Dawood and M. Granville.
     
2.  
Approval of Agenda
 
It was moved by M. Richardson and seconded by J. Leggatt that the agenda be approved with the following additions:
 
under item 8.  Departmental Reports, add calendar changes for:
 
.  History
.  Indigenous Learning.
                                                                                    Carried.
 
3.  
Presentation - Education Presentation for HBEd (Aboriginal Education).  (Dr. E. Gardner and Dr. J. O'Sullivan). (Attachment)
 
V. Smith welcomed E. Gardner and J. O'Sullivan.
 
Support documentation was distributed to members. (SEE ATTACHED DOCUMENT).
 
J. O'Sullivan and E. Gardner provided Council with an overview of a new  HBEd (Aboriginal Education) which will be brought forward to the next Senate meeting.  They asked Council for their support.  It was noted that they had conducted a broad consultation process which included appropriate Ontario government bodies as  well as native organizations on both a local and national scale.  They have received extensive support  to go ahead with this proposal.  The Ministry of Education in Nunavut has also indicated an interest in participating in such a program.  A discussion followed. 
 
4.  
Approval of the Minutes
 
It was moved by M. Richardson and seconded by C. Southcott that
the minutes of September 15th be approved.
 
                                                            Carried.     
                                                            
5. 
Business Arising from the Minutes.
 
There was none.
 
6.
Course Evaluations.
 
B. Strang spoke to the current emails that have been distributed electronically regarding the change in the course evaluation process. This new process was approved by Deans' Council prior to his appointment as Acting Dean. The course evaluation directive has stemmed from the Department of  Institutional Analysis.  He noted a lack of Senate consultation.   
 
A discussion followed as to the problems that might occur with this new process.  It was felt that the following motion should go forward to the next meeting of Senate.
 
It was moved by J. Leggatt and seconded by J. Roth that we as a faculty have serious objections with both process and principle to the change in the current course evaluations so that they will now be conducted on line.  Because Senate policy has not changed, we move that the proper process as outlined in Senate procedure be followed.
                                                           Carried Unanimously.    
 
7.        
Dean's Report.
 
B. Strang reported.
i)         
Hiring and Resource Allocation
 
.Currently, there is no news regarding hiring and resource allocation..
 
.Enrolment is down, but still close to last year's student numbers.
 
.The process for continuation codes is more proactive to allow students to receive appropriate and timely feedback.  This means that students are moving up through the system more regularly. As a result, there is a more accurate implementation of BIUs.   Upper year students receive more money and  therefore  tuition money has increased providing new money for the university. 
 
.The province is asking for a higher increase in graduate enrolment and it may prove difficult to reach these goals.  Graduate BIU funding provides more money.
 
.The current provincial government is more conservative with capital project funding.
 
.There is a graduate funding source, but strings are attached.  Currently there is no plan as to how resources or new Ph.D. programs will be supported.  A proactive approach should be taken as there are serious issues with staffing at the undergraduate level.  Growth in the graduate area will relieve some undergraduate shortcomings.  The Vice-President (Academic) is aware and sympathetic to these concerns.  
 
.AEC does not recognize replacement positions this year.  Currently, there is no indication of how many positions or how much growth will be approved.  Because of this, it is important that the faculty be well prepared so that once decisions are made, student needs can be met. 
 
.There will be a meeting of faculty chairs on Friday, October 27th to determine faculty priorities in both short and long-term planning.    
 
ii)
Durables
 
AEC will make a final decision on durables next week.  Requests for individual items below  $1500 will not be considered.  Faculty submissions for durables were from Languages, Music and Visual Arts.
 
iii)
L. Gilchrist (Associate Vice Provost (Aboriginal Initiatives))
 
Dr. Gilchrist's contract was not renewed.  Further review and decisions will be forthcoming.  Discussion followed.
 
iv)
Academic Plan and Student Learner Outcomes
 
.Because the provincial government has asked for learner outcome information, letters requesting this data have gone to departments.  A further set of letters have also been sent asking for information on combined major programs.
 
.Currently, there is an initiative with the Science and Environmental Studies faculty to streamline combined majors in order to be able to offer a more open program with a greater choice to students. 
 
.Discussion followed. 
 
.The whole process has been postponed and will come back to Faculty Council.  The intention is to eventually offer only four year degrees.  Currently this is being offered on the Orillia campus.
 
v)
Law School
 
A proposal to create a school of legal studies which would serve the northern region has been passed in Senate.
 
8.
Departmental Reports
 
i)  
English Calendar Changes
 
It was moved by J. Leggatt and seconded by P. Wakewich that the English calendar  changes be approved.
                                                          Carried.
 
ii) 
English Ph.D. Proposal
 
It was moved by D. Ivison and seconded by  J. Leggatt that the Ph.D. proposal in English be approved in principle.
 
                                                          Carried.
iii)
 Sociology Calendar Changes
 
It was moved by S.D. Stone and seconded by P. Wakewich that the Sociology calendar changes be approved.
 
                                                          Carried.
iv)
Visual Arts Calendar Changes
 
It was moved by M. Nisenholt and seconded by E. Auger that the Visual Arts calendar changes be approved.
 
                                                          Carried.
v)
History Calendar Changes
 
It was moved by E. Epp and seconded by G. Hayman that the History calendar changes be approved.
 
                                                          Carried.
vi)
Indigenous Learning Calendar Changes
 
It was moved by M. Richardson and seconded by J. Leggatt that the Indigenous Learning calendar changes be approved.
                                                          
                                                           Carried.
10.
Other Business
 
There was none.
 
11.      
Adjournment
 
The meeting adjourned at   3:15 p.m.
           
ATTENDANCE
E. Auger
A. Carastathis
G. Colton
T. Dufresne
E. Epp
M. Granville
G. Hayman
S. Islam
D. Jobin-Bevans
D. Ivison
J. Leggatt
A. Nabarra
M. Nisenholt
J.M. Richardson
J. Roth
M. Shannon
C. Southcott
S.D. Stone
V. Smith
B. Strang
P. Wakewich
 
REGRETS
A. Clarke
R. Harpelle
G. Genosko
R. Martin
M. MacLean
 
ATTACHMENT
 
For Education Faculty Council Approval - October 13, 2006
 
Honours Bachelor of Education H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Vision and Mission Statement contained in Lakehead University's Strategic Plan (2005-2010) affirm the importance of Aboriginal education to Lakehead University, and this is reflected in the goals of the Strategic Plan.  The Faculty of Education is committed to the development of new initiatives in Aboriginal Education evidenced by the recent establishment of a Department of Aboriginal Education, and inclusion of strategic goals for Aboriginal education in its Strategic Plan (2006-2011).  The proposed Honours Bachelor of Education H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) is one of the Faculty's strategic priorities. 
 
The need for the proposed H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) is clearly identified in the Ontario Ministry of Education's draft Aboriginal Education Policy Framework (May 11, 2006), which identifies Aboriginal education as a key priority in Ontario.  The Policy Framework has direct implications for Aboriginal Teacher Education.  These include the articulated need for programs that address:  a) the learning and cultural needs of Aboriginal students, b) academic achievement and identity building, c) learning about Aboriginal cultures within the general population and d) facilitating Aboriginal parents, students and community involvement in student success (p.2). 
 
The Faculty of Education through its Department of Aboriginal Education is positioned to offer programs in Aboriginal Teacher Education that respond to Aboriginal people's aspirations for their children to succeed in education while maintaining a strong Aboriginal identity. The proposed H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) builds on Lakehead University's long and distinguished record in Aboriginal Teacher Education, a record that spans over thirty years.  In 1974, we established the community-based Native Teacher Education Program (N.T.E.P.).  Since 1974, over 400 teacher candidates have graduated from the community-based N.T.E.P. programs.  The N.T.E.P. which began as a diploma for Primary/Junior teacher candidates has evolved into concurrent B.A./B.Ed or B.Sc./B.Ed. available in each of the following divisions: Primary/Junior, Junior/Intermediate, Intermediate/Senior.  Meanwhile, our Native Language Instructors' Program (N.L.I.P.) prepares teacher candidates who are fluent speakers of Ojibwe and Cree to teach the languages to Grade 8.  N.L.I.P. is the only program of its kind in Ontario and since its inception in 1977, N.L.I.P. has enrolled over 1,000 students. 
 
Degree:
Honours Bachelor of Education (Aboriginal Education); H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education)
 
Introduction:
The H.B.Ed. in Aboriginal Education is the result of extensive consultation over 4 years with Aboriginal communities. Aboriginal communities want their children to succeed academically with an education that is culturally relevant and which responds to their learning needs.  The H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) aims to prepare teachers to deliver a quality education, specialized to meet the needs of Aboriginal children. Graduates will be recommended to the O.C.T. for teacher certification at the P/J division.
 
This four-year H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) program is distinguished by its excellence in Aboriginal Teacher Education.  It includes two years of relevant Social Sciences/Humanities and Sciences, including required Native Language and Culture courses, and two years of teacher development, strengthening teacher readiness for the field. An academic concentration in a Junior/Intermediate teachable subject will enable graduates to pursue (J/I) certification through an Additional Basic Qualification. The second education component is focused on a Core Specialization in Literacy and Numeracy, with attention to children with special needs. These education components include relevant practical experiences.
 
An Honours project culminates this program and students will be able to demonstrate their learning in meaningful ways through Teaching & Learning Portfolios, Internships or Apprenticeships with elders and/or cultural teachers, Action Research, or Design of a Community-Based Program.
 
The program is designed and delivered primarily by Aboriginal faculty, staff, and administration from Lakehead University's Faculty of Education, supported by an Advisory Council for Aboriginal Education (A.C.A.E.) and Lakehead University's Aboriginal Management Council (A.M.C.). With flexible delivery students can enroll in the program on a full or part-time basis with community-based, on-campus, and distance delivery methods.  On-campus and community-based support for students will be available.
 
Admissions:
General admission requirements as per the Lakehead University calendar.
 
Candidates will be of Aboriginal ancestry.
               
Advanced Standing may be credited for relevant courses already completed through a university or college or Indigenous institute of higher learning.
 
Regulations:
See the University Regulations (page 43) and the Faculty of Education Regulations section (p.66) of the Calendar for conditions to enter, proceed in, and graduate from this program. A student in the H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) may be admitted or continue in the program if their overall average in Education courses is a B or better. 
 
Program Requirements:
Twenty FCEs are required to complete the H.B.Ed (Aboriginal Education).  All education courses will focus on teaching Aboriginal children, including those that constitute the program of Professional Teacher Education subject to accreditation by the Ontario College of Teachers.  The FCE courses required for the Professional Year Program appear with an asterisk (*) beside them; new courses appear in italics.
 
Year I
One of English (Lit. 1111 or 1112) and
One of English (Rhetoric 1031 or Composition 1011)                                                              
                                                          1FCE
Native Language - Introduction to Ojibwe/Cree                                    
                                                          1
Indigenous Learning 1100 - Introduction to Indigenous Learning                                             1
Science 1000 - Topics in Science                                              
                                                          1
Education XXXX - Foundations in Mathematics Education                                                                                 .5
Education XXXX - Aboriginal Education Foundations 
                                                            .5
                                                                                                                                                                    
Total                                                  5
 
 
Year II
English 2702 - Literature of Canada's First Nations                                               1
Math 0140 - Topics in Math                                                                                                                              1
Indigenous Learning/Visual Arts 2060 - Native Arts and Crafts                                                 1
One Full Course in S.S.&H. or Sc. in a J/I teachable subject (Calendar, p. 76)           1
Education XXXX - Teachers of Aboriginal Learners                                                                                               .5
Education XXXX - Literacy and the Aboriginal Child, Birth - Age 8   
                                                             .5                                                                                                                    Total                                                  5
 
 
Year III
Two Full Courses in S.S.&H. or Sc. in a J/I teachable subject (Calendar, p. 76)                                                      2
Education electives                                                                                                                                             .5
Education XXXX - Working with Parents & Families                                               .5
Education XXXX - Literacy and the Aboriginal Child, Age 9 - 12                                                        .5 
*Education 3013 - The Early Reading Institute                                                .25
Education 4399 (Placement)                                                                                                                                                                       .25
*Education 4410 - Educational Psychology/Teaching Exceptional Students                                               .5
*Education 4412 - Educational Law and 4413 - Foundations and Issues in Educ.                                                    .5
Total                                                   5                                                                                                           
 
 
Year IV
*Education 4470 - Intro to Classroom Management                                         .5
*Education 4013 - Teaching Early Literacy                                                
                                                            .25
*Education 4012 - C & I in Language Arts                                                      .5
*Education 4050 - C & I in Mathematics                                         
                                                            .5
Education XXXX - Mathematics Education Advanced Lab                                                                                   .25
*Education 4014 - C & I in Science and Technology and
*Education 4015 - C & I in Social Studies                                                 
                                                            .5
*Education 4016 - C & I in Visual Arts                                                      
                                                            .25
*Education 4017 - C & I in Music                                                   
                                                            .25
*Education 4018 - C & I in Physical Health                                                  
                                                            .25
*Education 4414 - Intro to Planning and Evaluation                                             .25
*Education 4499 - Student Teaching in Professional Year                                                     .5
Honours Project                                1 
Total                                                  5                                                                                                                   
 
 
 
Social Science & Humanities & Science Courses
One of English 1111 or 1112 and one of English1031 or 1011                                       1
Native Language - Introduction to Ojibwe/Cree                                                                            1
Indigenous Learning 1100 - Introduction to Indigenous Learning                                             1
Science 1000 - Topics in Science                                                                                                       1
English 2702 - Literature of Canada's First Nations                                                                        1
Math 0140 - Topics In Mathematics                                                                                                 1
Indigenous Learning/Visual Arts 2060 - Native Arts and Crafts                                 1
Three Full Courses in S.S.&H or Sc. in a J/I teachable subject (Calendar, p. 76)       3
Total                                                                                                                                                                       10
 
 
Education Courses
Education XXXX - Foundations in Mathematics Education                                                     .5
Education XXXX - Aboriginal Education Foundations                                                             .5 Education XXXX - Teachers of Aboriginal Learners                                                                                .5
Education XXXX - Literacy and the Aboriginal Child, Birth - Age 8                     .5
Education Electives                                                                                                                                             .5
Education XXXX - Working with Parents & Families                                                                .5
Education XXXX - Literacy and the Aboriginal Child, Age 9 - 12                                          .5 
Education 3013 - The Early Reading Institute                                                                                                .25
Education 4399 (Placement)                                                                                                                           .25
Education 4410 - Educational Psychology/Teaching
Exceptional Students                                                                                                                                           .5
Education 4412 - Educational Law and 4413 - Foundations
And Issues in Education                                                                                                                    .5
Education 4470 - Intro to Classroom Management                                                                       .5
Education 4013 - Teaching Early Literacy                                                                                       .25
Education 4012 - C & I in Language Arts                                                                                       .5
Education 4050 - C & I in Mathematics                                                                                           .5
Education XXXX - Mathematics Education Advanced Lab                                                       .25
Education 4014 - C & I in Science and Technology and
4015 -      C & I in Social Studies                                                                                                        .5
Education 4016 - C & I in Visual Arts                                                                                              .25
Education 4017 - C & I in Music                                                                                                       .25
Education 4018 - C & I in Physical Health                                                                                      .25
Education 4414 - Intro to Planning and Evaluation                                                                        .25
Education 4499 - Student Teaching in Professional Year                                                             .5
Honours Project                                                                                                                                  1
Total                                                                                                                                                                       10
 
Tuition and Other Fees:
Regular University fees apply.
 
DEMAND:
The need for programs such as the proposed H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) is clearly identified in the Ministry of Education's Draft Aboriginal Education Policy Framework (May 11, 2006), which identifies Aboriginal education as a key priority in Ontario.  The Ministry of Education's Policy Statement has direct implications for Teacher Education that the new proposed Program can begin to address:  a) the learning and cultural needs of Aboriginal students, b) academic achievement and identity building, c) learning about Aboriginal cultures within the general population and d) facilitating Aboriginal parents, students and community involvement in student success (p.2). 
 
This program is targeted at Aboriginal applicants, both recent high school graduates and teachers holding certification based on the N.T.E.P. and N.L.I.P. diplomas, who wish to pursue a degree that is culturally relevant and has, as one delivery option, the opportunity to study in the candidates home community.  We estimate that there are over 1400 N.T.E.P. and N.L.I.P. Lakehead graduates eligible for this program.  Recently, the Council of the Ontario College of Teachers approved an amendment to Regulation 184, the Regulation that governs teacher qualifications.  The amendment means that the N.T.E.P. diploma will no longer serve as a qualification for licensing once sufficient Aboriginal teachers are graduated from degree programs.  Consequently, the H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) will attract graduates from the N.T.E.P. diploma programs offered by 4 other Ontario Universities who seek degree completion. 
 
PROJECTED ENROLMENT:
The H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) Program is designed to be demand driven, and available to individual communities and regional clusters where it is feasible to offer it.  One cohort of 15-20 per year as a community-based offering and one on-campus cohort of a 15-20 student intake per year are projected initially.  Our enrolment target is that, by 2014, graduates from the H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) will constitute 10% of all Lakehead teacher education graduates.  
 
RESOURCES:
Revenue: At 06/07 rates, tuition fees plus BIU (government grant) would total $9, 300.00 per student per year (based on an estimate of 1.5 BIUs per student per year).   This would total $279,000 per year for a cohort of 30 students.
 
Costs: Education currently funds 5 FCEs (Special Sections) in S.S.&H. and Sciences.  Additional costs include two FCEs ($20,000.00 @ 06/07 rates) in those faculties.
 
Associated budgetary consequences include the costs of delivering 5 additional FCEs in Education annually ($50,000 at 06/07 rates), a support position for every 50 community-based candidates (e.g., will include advising, support for student retention) estimated cost = $60,000, Associate Teacher fees @ $12,000 per cohort of 30 students, plus miscellaneous administrative costs including recruitment in remote communities.   
Some of these costs can be accommodated by the current infrastructure.
 
INSTITUTIONAL IMPACT:
Currently, the yearly intake in the N.T.E.P. B.A./B.Ed. concurrent programs is
approximately 5 per year.  At the moment, there are 25 teacher candidates enrolled in N.T.E.P. concurrent programs across the 4 or 5 years of the programs.  All of these candidates are completing a B.A./B.Ed. (no candidates enrolled in a B.Sc./B.Ed.)and 15 of these are in the Primary Junior division.  Consequently, the impact of the new H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) Primary/Junior on enrollment in N.T.E.P. concurrent programs is minimal.   The impact of the proposed H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) for enrollment of Aboriginal teacher candidates at Lakehead is substantial and long term.
 
DUPLICATION:
The H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education) represents the first stand alone H.B.Ed./B.Ed. in the province of Ontario.  This model of Primary/Junior teacher education is one of several options available in other Provinces (e.g., Simon Fraser in British Columbia, University of Saskatchewan, Memorial University of Newfoundland) and other countries. These include Ireland (e.g.                    ),England  (eg.                ) Australia (e.g., University of Western Australia, University of New England), New Zealand (e.g., Dunedin College of Education) and the United States of America (e.g., University of Minnesota). 
 
PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION:
Implementation is contingent on:
 
  1. Approval from the Ministry of Colleges Training and Universities for the H.B.Ed. (Aboriginal Education)
  2. Eligibility of the degree program for government funding.
3.     Initial accreditation by the Ontario College of Teachers of the Professional Teacher Education component of the Program.
 
NEW COURSES:
Aboriginal Education Foundations                                                                                                .5
An introduction to Aboriginal Education in Canada.  A critical examination of historical and contemporary issues in education illuminating the impact of federal, provincial and local policies on the near demise of and recent efforts to revitalize Aboriginal languages and cultures.  An exploration of recent literature that highlights culturally appropriate and culturally based Aboriginal education grounded in Aboriginal philosophies and the goal of self-determination promoting an understanding and appreciation of Aboriginal perspectives.  Strategies for integrating this knowledge into personal understanding and into the work and practice of educators. 
 
Teachers of Aboriginal Learners                                                                                     .5
 A survey of the social, mental and general health conditions of Aboriginal people in association with relevant historical contexts, covering a) an exploration of how to distinguish social, medical and mental health conditions that affect learning from learning disabilities, b) helping tools for educators working with at-risk youth, and for liaising with relevant counselling, social work, mental health and medical professionals on behalf of youth and their families, c) existing support networks available to Aboriginal youth and their families within Aboriginal communities, and d) literature on Aboriginal helping approaches.
 
Aboriginal Parents, Families & Communities                                                              .5
An exploration of traditional and contemporary child-rearing practices in the education of the whole child that includes parents, families, and communities. Methods and strategies of respectful approaches, problem solving techniques and positive role modeling to address cultural and linguistic diversity.  An emphasis on the importance of oral and written communication, teaming, and the sharing of knowledge about children's learning development through parent and teacher partnerships.
 
Literacy and the Aboriginal Child, Birth - Age 8                                                        .5
This course is based on a social constructivist, reader response perspective on literacy teaching and learning. Students will be introduced to theory and exemplary practices which support the early literacy development of Aboriginal children from birth to age 8. Students will have opportunities to study and address challenges they may encounter as literacy teachers in the development of young children's oral reading and writing proficiency. They will begin to develop professional knowledge and worldviews, Aboriginal children's literature and resources and children's engagement and response through print and multiliteracies.
 
Literacy and the Aboriginal Child, Age 9 - 12                                                             .5
Teacher candidates will continue to build on the professional knowledge and skills developed in ED ---- , including professional knowledge about the development of Aboriginal children's (ages 9-12) oral language, reading and writing proficiency, with particular attention to children with special needs. They will extend their learning to include literacy, such as literacy across the curriculum, critical literacy, media and multiliteracies. An emphasis will be placed on the centrality of Aboriginal worldviews and children's constructions of their Aboriginal identity/ies, Aboriginal children's and Canadian multicultural children's literature and resources and response to text and diverse sign systems.  EDUC XXX is a Pre-requisite.
 
Foundations in Mathematics Education                                                                        .5
An introduction to primary (K-3) mathematics pedagogy and mathematical content.  Young children's mathematical development will be explored including typical models, strategies and big ideas developed in traditional and inquiry classrooms as well as in the home and community.
 
Mathematics Education Advanced Lab                                                                          .25
An advanced course in the mathematical content and education of children in elementary schools. Topics explored in 4050 will be extended within the lab setting with particular attention to instruction in Aboriginal Communities. 
 
Education 4399                                                                                                  
Student Teaching Placement                                                                                                             .25
A supervised practical placement in which students have extended opportunity to observe and practice teach in alternative instructional settings.
 
Honours Project                                                                                                                  1
A required culminating project, such as: Teaching and Learning Portfolios, Internship or Apprenticeship, Action Research, Participatory Community Research, or Design of a Community-Based Program.
 
Total                                                                                                                                                       4.5 FCEs