I. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
PURPOSE: The purpose of this document is to provide an overall plan of action for responding to emergencies that may impact the research, teaching and testing on animals housed and used at Lakehead University. The maintenance of animal health and welfare is a critical research service.
When responding to an emergency that may impact these animals, the following main purposes, in order of priority, will determine the response:
- to protect human safety, health and welfare
- to protect animal safety, health and welfare
- to provide continuity of animal care
- to protect property and infrastructure of animal facilities
- to protect the environment
- to restore research, teaching, testing and administrative operations within the animal facilities
SCOPE: This plan covers all animals housed and used under the auspices of Lakehead University with oversight from the Animal Care Committee (ACC). It includes the areas under the umbrella of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Animal Research Facilities Certificate of Registration.
This Animal Emergency Response Plan covers MAJOR crisis or disasters that activate the institutional Emergency Response Plan and involve multiple departments and involve research, teaching and testing animals. MINOR emergencies, such as power or water service outages of ultra-short duration, may not activate this plan unless they become major emergencies.
A Crisis Management Plan for an Institutional Animal Care and Use Program is required by the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), and is essential for the continuation of animal research, teaching and testing at Lakehead University.
The most likely major emergencies to be experienced include:
- accidental disasters (e.g. fire, chemical spill, explosion)
- natural disasters (e.g. floods, storms, blizzards)
- sustained mechanical failures of essential life support equipment (e.g. ventilation systems, water systems, power failure)
- criminal activity (e.g. bomb threat, break-ins and vandalism, unauthorized removal of animals)
- civil disturbance (e.g. animal rights demonstration) or other media event requiring an organized response.
To identify all types of disasters and crises is beyond the scope of this document. However, regardless of the cause and scale of the event, emergency management agencies have long recognized that most disaster impacts are often similar. Thus, this document adopts an "all-hazard" approach to disaster preparedness and response. This approach focuses on preventing and limiting undesirable consequences resulting from any type of disaster. Civil disturbances have some unique considerations that will be dealt with in a separate section.
III. CHAIN OF COMMAND AND PLAN ACTIVATION
This plan is an addendum to the Lakehead University Emergency Response Plan administered by the Vice President (Administration & Finance) and Emergency Operations Control Group (EOCG). This plan will also serve as a guideline for handling emergencies impacting animal care and use at Lakehead University Affiliates, such as the Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute (TBRRI), Thunder Bay Regional Health Science Centre (TBRHSC) and Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM).
The Animal Care Committee Chair and University Veterinarian will be responsible for oversight and review of the Animal Emergency Response Plan and for notifying the ACC and relevant regulatory agencies, such as OMAFRA and CCAC, in the event an emergency occurs. As required, the University Veterinarian will provide emergency animal medical services and guidance on animal care.
When an emergency occurs, the appropriate security personnel will evaluate the situation to determine the best course of action depending on the nature and level of emergency. Security will then contact the person(s) on the Security Contact List supplied to them for that location. The person(s) on this list should be the person(s) most familiar with day-to-day operations and animal care at the location and can include Animal Care Technicians, Manager of Animal Facilities and University Veterinarian. If it is a MINOR emergency, the person(s) should attempt to restore standard care as quickly as possible and report back to the University Veterinarian and Manager of Animal Facilities using the Animal Incident Report Form in a timely manner. If there are animals in pain or distress, if the contact person(s) are not capable of handling the situation, or if the situation escalates, they must contact the University Veterinarian, Manager of Animal Facilities and/or Animal Care Committee Chair.
For MAJOR emergencies, the appropriate institutional emergency response plan will be activated by appropriate senior administration after notification by security personnel. When there is potential or known involvement of research, teaching or testing animals, the activation of the Animal Emergency Response Plan will be communicated in a timely manner via phone and/or email to the University Veterinarian and Animal Care Committee Chair. The timing of this communication must occur after first response emergency assistance has been initiated for any human health and welfare issues, but in such a time frame to minimize the delays in addressing animal health and welfare issues.
Once notified, the University Veterinarian or Animal Care Committee Chair will contact the Manager of Animal Facilities or Incident Leader (see section V. Animal Care Emergency Response Team) and the applicable site-specific animal emergency plan will be activated.
All relevant personnel will have access to this plan, including, but not limited to local emergency response personnel, Lakehead security, Thunder Bay Regional Health Science Center (TBRHSC) security, communications, health and safety officers, animal care staff, and principal investigators.
Appendix I outlines the Animal Emergency Response Plan Chain of Command and Activation.
IV. ANIMAL CARE EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM (ACERT)
Core members: University Veterinarian, ACC Chair, Incident Leader and/or Manager of Animal Facilities, and at least one animal care technician at each facility/site.
The ACERT may also seek additional support from animal research team members, as appropriate.
Incident Leader: Each site-specific housing or procedure location should identify an individual responsible for assisting in the coordination of the emergency response in that location. This should be a member that is most familiar with the day-to-day operations of the specific site and routine care of the animals within that location. For the Animal Facilities (e.g. Lakehead University Animal Care Facility), this would be the Manager of Animal Facilities. For other sites, this may be the Principal Investigator, Laboratory Manager, or other staff member, as appropriate. An alternate person should also be identified, in case the primary individual cannot be reached.
Command Center: Upon activation of the Animal Emergency Response Plan, the University Veterinarian and/or ACC Chair will identify a Command Center. This will be a safe location where response efforts can be coordinated. Campus wide emergencies will have a centralized command center; localized emergencies should use a safe area close to the affected location.
ACERT members must follow direction of primary responders (fire, police, and rescue personnel), security officers, and other emergency personnel, as human health and safety takes precedence.
V. SITE-SPECIFIC ANIMAL EMERGENCY PLANS (SAEP)
Due to the variety of species and animal housing/procedure locations under the jurisdiction of the Lakehead University Animal Care Committee, it is necessary to have site-specific animal emergency plans. The SAEP should include the following:
- Facility or location details, including species or species groups expected to be in that location (Common names of species or species groups should be used, as emergency responders/care providers may not know scientific names of animals)
- Who provides security to the area and how to contact them
- Contact information for key personnel who will respond to an emergency at that particular location (e.g. veterinarian, manager/incident leader, media spokesperson, animal care personnel, people who can euthanize animals if required)
- How to access the area (with and without power)
- How emergency power back-up is supplied
- Contact information if repairs to life support equipment are required
- Contact information for general equipment and life sustaining supplies
- Known hazards, including dangerous animals or animals injected with hazardous substances, if any
- Animal rescue priorities, if any
- If staff are not allowed access, an estimate on how long animals will survive on their own (i.e. critical period)
- Possible areas of relocation
- Basic, life-sustaining emergency care of the species or species groups contained within that area
Animal Care Facilities: Each animal care facility must have an ACC approved SAEP. A copy of this plan should be kept within each animal holding room, procedure room and at the front entryway. It should be available and easily accessed by emergency responders during a crisis.
Procedural locations: Animals temporarily located in procedural areas may also need a SAEP, depending on the duration of their stay in these areas. The ACC may request to see that information as part of protocol review or annual inspection.
Other areas: Special areas, not a part of the existing animal care facilities, approved for animal care and use by the ACC, may be required to present a SAEP as part of the protocol review.
Site-specific animal emergency plans should be reviewed regularly to maintain current information.
ACC approved copies of the site-specific animal emergency plans must be forwarded to all appropriate personnel and departments, including Security, ACC Chair, and University Veterinarian.
VI. GENERAL GUIDELINES:
1. Mitigation Actions:
- Regular review of the Animal Emergency Response Plan and Sitespecific Animal Emergency Plans
- Set priorities and identify critical equipment and activities within each animal facility
- Identify limitations for emergency response within each animal facility and improve, if possible
- Assess hazards and emergency resources within each animal facility
- Plan escape routes and animal evacuation areas
- Be aware of local weather conditions, especially storm warnings
- Be aware of local news events, especially criminal activity and civil disturbances near animal facilities
2. Preparedness Actions:
- Emergency Contact Lists
Display contact lists in visible and readily accessed locations within each Animal Facility. Update lists regularly and with every staffing change.
The Manager of Animal Facilities is responsible for monitoring contact lists. If a discrepancy is found, he/she reports to the Animal Care Coordinator who will update the list and contact the appropriate security department.
- Campus and/or Hospital Emergency Contact List, Emergency and First Aid information sheet(s)
- Appropriate contact personnel (University Veterinarian, Manager of Animal Facilities, Animal Technicians, Principal Investigator(s), etc.) and associated emergency phone/pager numbers, mobile/text numbers and email addresses
- Mechanical Emergency Repair Contact List for the regular and after-hours contacts of personnel to repair all life-support equipment (e.g. temperature, humidity, ventilation, water, light, oxygen, dechlorination systems, etc.)
- Communication Devices
Understanding limitations of communication devices in emergency situations is critical. Ensure key personnel (i.e. ACERT members) can be contacted at any time.
i. With Power
- Phone or mobile text/phone
Note: some mobile phones do not work in animal facilities located in building basements. In this case, attempts should be made to contact personnel in these locations via corded phones within the facility.
ii. Without Power
- Phone or mobile text/phone: Some corded phone systems may be operational without power. Depending on the scope of power outage, mobile phones may be operational. Essential service personnel may set up advanced priority access to cellular networks during a city wide outage/disaster.
- Runners: Individual(s) can be sent to relay information. The person(s) designated as runners should be non-essential to the immediate animal care and response efforts.
- Provide and maintain documentation of participation in, and completion of, training of all current staff, all new staff within 30 days of hire, all staff on changes within 30 days of revision
- Animal care and veterinary staff must be instructed that responding to emergencies is a condition of employment and that they will be held accountable should they fail to care properly for the animals.
- Read, learn and know the plan
- Review contact information for emergency responders
- Develop back-up methods for contacting emergency responders
- Know response equipment materials location and use
- The plan must be updated and exercised by practicing simulated evacuation drills at least annually.
d. Materials and Resources
- Store a supply of food, bedding, water (or water substitute like hydrogels) and PPE (personal protective equipment) at all times.
- Ensure adequate euthanasia and basic medical supplies for all animals are on hand.
- Obtain and store the following supplies: flashlights/head lamps, extra batteries, first-aid kit
- If advanced notice is given and there is potential that personnel must remain on site overnight, obtain and store air mattress/cots/blankets/pillows, food rations for personnel, head lamps, drinking water.
- Ensure essential personnel have necessary access, keys to supply storage, etc.
- Create/maintain census information of animals, cages/tanks, investigator contacts, and protocol numbers.
3. Response Actions:
- NEVER ENDANGER YOUR PERSONAL SAFETY
- An Animal Emergency Response Plan Triage flowchart is provided in Appendix II.
- The ACERT, or any member thereof, will be responsible for triage of the animal emergency situation.
- If advance notice of impending emergency (e.g. weather) has been given, initiate assessment of supply storage needs.
- Can you conduct operations from the current location?
- Is it safe to enter? Assess structure/building/room safety. Do not enter if it appears unsafe. Defer to security or emergency response personnel if present.
- Evaluate situation
- viii. Degree of disaster: how many rooms/animals affected?
- Are animal life support systems functional?
- Is there power?
- Are food and water available?
- Are temperature, humidity and ventilation controls working?
- Are housing units functional?
- If life support systems are not functional, what is the duration of the down-time? How long can the animals be maintained in these conditions? Will the down-time exceed the critical period where health and well-being of the animals is compromised?
x. Are there injured/distressed animals?
xi. Are euthanasia supplies available?
xii. Assess animal priority: rare, irreplaceable or expensive animals may need priority over
common, replaceable animals.
xiii. Are all animals accounted for? Potential for escapees?
xiv. Is animal evacuation required? Is there a safe location for evacuees? Feasibility of evacuation?
Basic life-sustaining on-site care should be carried out, whenever possible, until the crisis is over. If the disaster, and/or resulting down-time, is such that the ability to provide on-site care is significantly impaired, animals should be evacuated and/or euthanized depending on assessment of the situation and the probable timing of return to normal.
b. General provisions for care and maintenance of the animals
If advanced notice of the emergency (e.g. blizzard) is given, follow these guidelines prior to personnel evacuation. If immediate personnel evacuation is required, or if health and safety of personnel may be compromised, follow these guidelines after Security allows building entry.
i. Rodents and Rabbits:
- Fill food containers in animal rooms with food.
- Fill clean receptacles or buckets with additional water.
- For animals on automatic water (e.g. rodents in Individually Ventilated Cage racks) place extra water bottle on cage and/or place water gel (e.g. hydrogel) inside cage.
- Top up all food in animal cages.
ii. Aquatic Animals:
- Fill extra tanks with de-chlorinated water.
- Feed as per SOP
- Ensure water levels in aquatic tanks are adequate
- Evaluate water quality parameters, as per SOP
- Minimum 10% water change, as appropriate
Note: During the activation of the Animal Emergency Response Plan, all special care procedures, including special diets and/or water additives may stop, due to limited personnel and supplies available. During this time, animals may be supplied with any available species appropriate food and source of hydration. Special care procedures can resume once standard care has been re-established. If pain medications are required as part of a protocol, the ACERT members will attempt to provide these under the guidance of the University Veterinarian, whenever possible.
c. Power Failure:
- All equipment critical for life-support must be on an emergency back-up power system.
- If applicable, verify that all ventilated cage racks and automated aquatic systems are plugged into emergency power outlets and are operational.
- If rodent ventilation racks are not operational, open doors to animal rooms to aid in ventilation. Check with the manufacturer for an estimate of how long the animals can survive when the ventilation of the rack system is not functioning (i.e. critical period). Record this information in the SAEP. Depending on the circumstances and design of rack system, rodents may survive for up to this critical period in non-functional ventilation racks with filter tops in place. If the rack ventilation system is not functional for greater than the critical period, the filter tops should be removed, leaving a wire lid in place, to allow for better ventilation.
- If automated aquatic systems are not functional, do manual water changes as required based on water quality test parameters. Survivability of animals in non-functional aquatic systems will depend on a variety of factors, including species, type of system and stocking density.
- Except in the situation of a fire, open all animal room doors to interior hallway only, leaving main doors closed.
d. Animal Evacuation:
i. Goals of Evacuation (in order of priority):
- to save the life of the animal
- establish critical life-sustaining care as quickly as possible
- establish standard care, including adequate environmental controls
- maintain biosecurity (i.e. protect animals from possible infectious disease)
Research, teaching and testing animals, especially transgenic animals or animals injected with potentially hazardous substances, must never be released to save their lives. They must be contained and escape prevented.
Hazardous animals or animals containing hazardous substances (e.g. hazardous chemicals or biological agents) must not be evacuated to areas outside of the area(s) approved for use of these animals/substances.
ii. Evacuation Areas:
- Small-scale incident (e.g., those involving 1 housing room or less): Animals should be relocated to nearby rooms within the animal facility.
- Medium-scale incident (e.g. multiple rooms, large segments of a facility or building, including animal procedure rooms): Animals may be relocated to any open available space (e.g. storage rooms, receiving dock, corridors, etc.) within the building. These are spaces not designed to house animals and would be a temporary measure as animal care would be severely constrained by the lack of environmental control, lack of design features such as HVAC, plumbing, etc.
DO NOT BLOCK EMERGENCY ESCAPE ROUTES.
- Large-scale incident (e.g. whole buildings, whole animal facilities, entire campus impacted): Relocation of animals to a different building, as transportation is available. These buildings may not be designed to house animals and would be a temporary measure as animal care would be severely constrained by the lack of environmental control, lack of design features, etc. The goal of this evacuation would be to save animal lives when no alternative is available or as a temporary solution prior to finding a more suitable solution.
iii. Animal Specific Considerations:
1. Rodents and Rabbits: Whenever possible, relocate animals in home cages. Entire rack systems should be moved, whenever possible and when whole rack systems need evacuation. Alternately, transport cages can be used when necessary.
Cage changes will not be permitted in evacuation areas outside the facility due to the potential for escape and/or contamination of the personnel/space.
2. Aquatic Animals:
- Those species that cannot survive outside of water for duration of transport (e.g. fish) should be moved in clean buckets (with lid) or bags filled with water. Water from the home tank should be used whenever possible. If not possible, use same temperature dechlorinated water if time permits to prevent thermal shock. Aerate the bag or bucket containing the fish once arrived at relocation area. As soon as possible, establish static tank system(s) with aquarium filters in the relocation area and re-institute standard care as quickly as possible
Tank water changes are permitted in evacuation areas if the effluent water can be disposed of in accordance to local regulation and the animal(s) cannot escape during the procedure.
- Those species that can survive outside water for the duration of required transport (e.g. most reptiles, some frogs) can be transferred in home tank, buckets (with lid) or transport cages/boxes. Re-establish standard care in relocation area as quickly as possible.
Cage changes will not be permitted in evacuation areas outside of the facility due to the potential for escape and/or contamination of the personnel/space.
NEVER MIX ANIMALS from different home cages or tanks.
Animal Euthanasia: In the event that all other options have been exhausted, the University Veterinarian can give the order that animals should be humanely euthanized. If the University Veterinarian is not available, due to the nature of the emergency, then the available responding ACERT members, as a subcommittee, can make the decision to euthanize. Euthanasia must be conducted in a humane manner with a rapid loss of consciousness followed by death (see Lakehead University Animal Care and Use Program Policy Statement on Euthanasia of Animals). Animal Euthanasia must only be conducted by trained personnel. Personnel who are trained in euthanasia procedures should be listed on the SAEP, including contact information.
e. Animal Euthanasia:
In the event that all other options have been exhausted, the University Veterinarian can give the order that animals should be humanely euthanized. If the University Veterinarian is not available, due to the nature of the emergency, then the available responding ACERT members, as a subcommittee, can make the decision to euthanize. Euthanasia must be conducted in a humane manner with a rapid loss of consciousness followed by death (see Lakehead University Animal Care and Use Program Policy Statement on Euthanasia of Animals). Animal Euthanasia must only be conducted by trained personnel. Personnel who are trained in euthanasia procedures should be listed on the SAEP, including contact information.
4. Recovery Actions:
a. Locate areas of known hazards or animals containing known hazards; stabilize these animals and environments first.
b. Re-establish standard animal care of surviving animals first, then general facility structure/function. Only when animals and building have resumed normal care and function, can research, teaching or testing procedures resume. The University Veterinarian or Animal Care Committee Chair will notify researchers that research, teaching or testing procedures can resume.
c. Facility Structure, Utilities and Equipment
- Repairs to ensure personnel safety take priority.
- Species-specific environmental conditions must be assessed and recommendations communicated if conditions need to be improved.
- Repairs to general areas should be considered AFTER lifesustaining and animal comfort functions are re-established.
- Take animal inventory
- Conduct animal health assessments.
- Triage all animal survivors and classify them into categories of health and exposure to environmental conditions outside of the cage/tank.
- Remove animal carcasses and store for disposal.
- Organize re-capture efforts for escapees, if appropriate. Refer to appropriate facility SOP for animal re-capture.
- Provide animal enclosure cleaning as necessary to minimize animals being in wet/dirty cages or dirty/contaminated tanks. The University Veterinarian will counsel animal care staff on additional disinfection procedures as required.
- Euthanasia determining factors:
- Pain/distress, beyond rescue
- Availability of feed, caging, rooms, environment, species requirements
- Investigator input, unless suffering as determined by veterinarian
- Loose, unidentified animals 5. Euthanasia should only be completed by a trained individual
- Consider temporary relief staff to ensure personnel responding during emergency are not overworked.
- Counseling for personnel, if necessary
- Refresher training in emergency response
f. Clean and disinfect evacuation areas after animals have been relocated back into standard locations.
g. Analyze financial impact
h. Evaluate emergency plan and make adjustments
VII. EXTERNAL MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS
The University community, general public, and/or media may learn of an animal emergency crisis or civil disturbance and contact various individuals associated with animal use, the Animal Care Committee or animal care staff. Please refer all media inquiries to Lakehead's Office of Media Relations. Only spokespersons approved by Lakehead's Veterinarian and the University's Office of Media Relations may respond to media on behalf of the Animal Care Committee. Refer to the Internal Communications Policy, which states: “The media will sometimes contact various individuals in the University to comment on specific issues, events, or situations. Following established protocol, no one may make statements to the media on behalf of the University without prior agreement with the Office of Communications (OOC). As part of the University's process, the media will contact the OOC, who will in turn determine the best spokesperson for a specific requirement. Typically, the OOC will work with appropriate departments to prepare the interviewee - craft key messages, and determine positioning and the manner in which the messages should be conveyed. If a member of the media contacts a staff or faculty member directly, the reporter should either be referred back to the OOC, or the staff or faculty member should discuss the matter with the OOC.”
Refer to Appendix III for the communications response chain of command to an animal related event requiring a media response.
VIII. CIVIL DISTURBANCE
A civil disturbance (e.g. animal rights protest) presents a different type of animal related event. Generally, these do not usually pose an immediate threat to structure or animal health, thus responses to these situations are different. If the civil disturbance escalates to cause a crisis or emergency that threatens facility structure or animal health/welfare (e.g. fire or bomb), then the General Action Plan stated previously would be instituted.
All institutional personnel must report any untoward or unusual events related to animal care and use (e.g. threatening/mischievous phone calls/letters, inappropriate requests for information or animal room tours, strangers found in inappropriate animal areas, etc.) to the University Veterinarian. The University Veterinarian will then involve the appropriate departments, as necessary, such as the Office of Media Relations, Office of Research Services, and/or Security. If the University Veterinarian is not available, the Animal Care Committee Chair, Office of Research Services, Security or Office of Media Relations can be notified. Security must be notified immediately any time there is an escalated event, or a threat to person(s) and/or property.
1. Mitigation Actions:
- Cultivate relationships with local media outlets, including animal welfare groups (e.g. humane society).
- Educate the public and staff about the benefits of animal research
- Ensure facilities are secure
2. Preparedness Actions:
- Monitor activities/planned protests of activist organizations
- Keep key players informed of these activities Key players include: University Veterinarian, Animal Care Committee Chair, Office of Media Relations, and Office of Research Services
- Familiarize leaders with animal facilities and programs
- Identify and train spokespersons
- Plan for enhanced security prior, during and following planned events
- Back-up data and records. Store back-ups in a different location.
- Consider pre-emptive media campaigns, including preauthorized media release statements for prompt action.
- Pre-authorized media release statements should be regularly reviewed and updated as the research focus of the institution changes.
- General media release statements should consider the following:
- Institutional mandate for animal use.
- Lay summaries of animal use protocols (AUPs) approved by the ACC, focusing on why animals must be used and how protocols are refined (e.g. pain control, environmental enrichment) to improve health and well-being of the animals in the project.
- Institutional public relations materials
- Description of work done by the ACC, animal care staff and scientific merit review members, as appropriate
- Information on relationship between animal-based research and human/animal health care
- Prepare for secondary emergencies:
- Stress of personnel
- Escaped or released animals
- Blocked roads
- Public information crisis
3. Response Actions:
- Notify emergency leaders as events unfold
- Enhance security procedures (e.g. lockdown during events)
- REMIND everyone that only trained person(s) talk to the media
- Avoid confrontations with activists
- Prepare response messaging and media release information for spokesperson and Office of Media Relations f. Prepare for secondary emergencies (as above)
4. Recovery Actions:
- Inspect/assess damage
- Counseling for personnel, if necessary
- Inform public of outcome. Reassure humane care of animals.
- Analyze financial impact
- Evaluate emergency plan and make adjustments
IX. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Preservation of critical/irreplaceable animals: Laboratory specific emergency plans are expected to address consideration of cryopreservation/rederivation or other means of preserving irreplaceable animals. These plans are the responsibility of the Principal Investigator listed for these animals. If required, the University Veterinarian can assist the Principal Investigator in developing a laboratory specific emergency plan for rare/valuable animals.
Animal Disease Outbreaks: If disease of research, teaching and testing animals is suspected, then the University Veterinarian must be contacted to assess the situation (see Standard Operating Procedure for Sick Animal Reports). Response will be determined by the University Veterinarian based on number of animal affected, clinical signs of illness, pathology and/or identification of disease-causing agent. If the disease-causing agent is suspected to be transferable to humans (zoonotic disease), Health & Safety officer(s) will be notified. Personnel with any known or suspected exposure to a zoonotic agent are instructed to seek assistance of their health care provider. If the disease causing agent is a reportable disease, then the University Veterinarian must contact the appropriate government official (e.g. Canadian Food Inspection Agency District Veterinarian).
For questions and assistance with the Animal Emergency Response Plan, contact the University Veterinarian at (807) 346-7863 or email@example.com
X. REFERENCES AND RESOURCES
1. Lakehead University Health and Safety Policy. Emergency/Crisis Response.
2. Lakehead University Internal Communications Policy.
3. Lakehead University Animal Care Committee Terms of Reference.
4. Canadian Council on Animal Care Policy Statement for: senior administrators responsible for animal care and use programs. 2008. Appendix IX: Crisis Management.
5. Canadian Council on Animal Care Resources for Animal Care Committee. Crisis Management Program.
6. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Animals for Research Act. R.R.O. 1990. Regulations 22 and 24.
7. Canadian Biosafety Standards and Guidelines. Chapter 18 Emergency Response Plan.
8. USDA Information Resources for Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees. Disaster Planning for Animal Facilities.
9. American Association of Laboratory Animal Science. Checklist of Disaster Planning Expectations in the Guides and Animal Welfare Regulations.
10.Durkee, S. Disaster Planning. Animal Lab News. April 2007. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/aln_apr07_reprint.pdf
11.University of Minnesota Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Animal Program Disaster Plan. 2013.