Punctuation Inside of Quotations:
Periods and commas always go inside closing quote marks; colons and semicolons outside. The question mark and exclamation mark go inside the quote marks when they apply to the quoted matter only, outside when they apply to the entire sentence.
Example: She shouted, “Welcome back!”
Example: “Where are you going?” said Bob.
Example: What should I have answered when Bob asked, "Where are you going"?
Example: Police finally cornered the “bear”; it was a poodle.
Example: Dr. Rui Wang, Vice-President (Research, Economic Development, and Innovation), said, “The outstanding efforts and creativity of Drs. Catalan and Kinrade, time and again, show the capacity and commitment of Lakehead University to knowledge transformation and economic development.”
BUT: Dr. Rui Wang, Vice-President (Research, Economic Development, and Innovation), said that “The outstanding efforts and creativity of Drs. Catalan and Kinrade, time and again, show the capacity and commitment of Lakehead University to knowledge transformation and economic development.”
Example: A master’s degree
Example: A bachelor’s degree
When writing lists of items, add a comma before the last item:
Example: We value our students, faculty, and staff. (Not: We value our students, faculty and staff.)
Note the use of commas around quotes and when a pause is required:
Example: She said, “I am going on holiday.”
Example: Thus, we will submit a revised proposal in June.
Example: However, we will not be participating in the competition next year.
Example: According to Professor Brown, music professors rarely undertake research in the way that academics in other departments would; however, he is currently working on two projects that are research based.
Use single quotes for quotes within quotes
Example: "What has been a little-recognized educational ‘diamond in the rough’ in a little-understood region of the Province of Ontario will be sharing its true value as a finely cut gem within one of the fastest growing areas of Canada."
Use double quotes for lecture titles, book titles, film titles, research projects
Example: Maude Barlow is giving a public lecture entitled, “Too Close for Comfort – Canada’s Future in Fortress North America."
Example: A CFI grant was awarded to Dr. Ellie Prepas for her project, “Watershed Integrated Nutrient Study Sites in the Boreal Forest.”
Example: Dr. Kristen Burnett’s first book is entitled “Taking Medicine: Women’s Healing, Work, and Colonial Contact in Southern Alberta, 1880-1930.”
Use italics (not quotes) for Journals and Magazines:
Along with faculty members, Marshall Hahn co-authored two publications that were published in the Journal of Computer Science.