|all-inclusive study (but: overall design)||45-fold (but: tenfold)|
|two-and-a-half||full-length mirror (but: the mirror was full length)|
|middle-class voters (but: midlife crisis)||snail-like (but: catlike)|
|faculty-specific marketing initiatives||research-intensive university|
|age-friendly communities||resource-based economy|
|knowledge-based economy||high-tech facility|
|institutional awareness-building efforts||student-centred environment|
|first-place standing||value-added university|
|thought-provoking reply||self-reliant boy|
|six-year-old boy||state-of-the-art laboratories|
|black-and-white print||re-examine, pre-empt|
|co-op, Career and Co-operative Education Services||co-author, co-editor, co-pilot, co-chair, co-recipient, co-defendant, co-conspirator|
|pro-choice, pro-life||world-class centre of excellence|
|ill-fitting garment||best-loved cousin|
|little-understood book||least-desirable accommodation|
Example: Lakehead offers on-campus and off-campus courses. or: Lakehead offers on- and off-campus courses.
Example: The curriculum focuses on treaty and non-treaty legal interpretations.
Example: The Finance Department is planning for the short- and long-term success of the institution.
Example: The labs are open to full- and part-time students.
Example: We are prepared to cooperate with you.
Example: I will coordinate this project.
Open Compounds (No Hyphens):
|under way||newly hired employee|
|decision making, decision maker||problem solving|
|video conference, video conferencing||home page|
An adverb (words ending in “ly”) followed by a participle or adjective is open and requires no hyphens
Examples: environmentally friendly, poorly attired man, highly developed, wholly involved, utterly dejected, ardently pursued
|binomial||midtown but: Mid-Atlantic and mid-nineteenth century)|
|bioecology, bioenergy, biorefining, biomaterials, biomolecular, bioeconomy||minibus|
|cooperate (but: Career and Co-operative Education Services)||postdoctoral, postgraduate|
|email (not e-mail)||postsecondary|
Numbers that need hyphens:
Lakehead raised $13 million for scholarships and bursaries. (In this case, $13 million is a noun and does not need the hyphen.)
The University’s $13-million capital campaign ended in May. (Here, $13-million is an adjective that modifies capital campaign and needs a hyphen.)