Language & Styleguide: Abbreviations

Lakehead University:

Never refer to Lakehead University as "LU" as this can be confused with Laurentian University. Instead, refer to it as "Lakehead University," "Lakehead," or "Lakehead U." Other variations include the following:

  • Lakehead University Thunder Bay
  • Lakehead University Thunder Bay campus
  • Lakehead University Orillia
  • Lakehead University Orillia campus


The abbreviated form is "Wolves" and should be used only after first mentioning "Thunderwolves."

Co-operative Education:

Use the hyphen when referring to the Lakehead University department, Career and Co-operative Education Services (and its abbreviated form "Co-op"), but delete the hyphen with using the word "cooperate" or "coordinate."


Use "%" or "percent" but be consistent throughout the piece.

Et cetera (etc. or et cetera):

Use a comma after the term

Example: The carpenter’s nails, hammer, saw, et cetera, were found at the bottom of the lake.

Example: The carpenter’s nails, hammer, saw, etc., were found at the bottom of the lake.

Example: The carpenter’s nails, hammer, saw, and so on, were found at the bottom of the lake.


For Canadian provinces and territories, use these abbreviations after the name of the community and not the abbreviations set by Canada Post (e.g. ON, SK, AB, etc.):

Alta. Alberta   
B.C. British Columbia        
Man. Manitoba 
N.B.  New Brunswick      
N.L.  Newfoundland and Labrador 
N.W.T.  The Northwest Territories   
N.S. Nova Scotia      
Ont. Ontario 
P.E.I. Prince Edward Island   
Que. Quebec 
Sask.  Saskatchewan 
Yukon  The Territory of the Yukon 
Nunavut  The Territory of Nunavut  


For American states, use these abbreviations after the name of a community:

Ala., Ariz., Ark.  Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas 
Calif., Colo., Conn.  California, Colorado, Connecticut 
Del., Fla., Ga.  Delaware, Florida, Georgia 
Ill., Ind.  Illinois, Indiana 
Kan., Ky., La.  Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana 
Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont.  Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana
Neb., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.M., N.Y., N.C.,N.D.  Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota 
Okla., Ore.  Oklahoma, Oregon 
Pa., R.I.  Pennsylvania, Rhode Island 
S.C., S.D  South Carolina, South Dakota 
Tenn., Vt., Va.  Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia 
Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.  Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming 

U.S. is the abbreviation for the nation known as the United States. Do not abbreviate Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, Utah, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands.

Style for Abbreviations:

Omit periods in all-capital abbreviations unless the abbreviation is geographical or refers to a person.

Examples: UFO, UBC, CBC

Examples: P.E.I, N.W.T., U.S., U.S.A., J.R. Ewing, E.T.

Mixed abbreviations that begin and end with a capital letter do not take periods:

Examples: PhD, U of T, PoW

Use Corp., Inc., and Ltd. with corporate names  without commas:

Example: Texaco Inc. has announced the closure of four offices